Blød kinesisk arktis-strategi

Foto: Daderot / Wikimedia Commons.

Kina har netop fremlagt en strategi for Arktis, som er ganske mild og imødekommende med fokus på skibsruter, fiskeri og turisme.

I strategien starter Kina ud med at præsentere ganske vidtløftige mål for sin arktis-politik:

“China’s policy goals on the Arctic are: to understand, protect, develop and participate in the governance of the Arctic, so as to safeguard the common interests of all countries and the international community in the Arctic, and promote sustainable development of the Arctic.”

Og de mål vil Kina opfylde i samklang med andre nationer.

“Through all the above efforts to understand, protect, develop and participate in the governance of the Arctic, China will work with all other countries to build a community with a shared future for mankind in the Arctic region. While pursuing its own interests, China will pay due regard to the interests of other countries and the broader international community, bear in mind the importance of the protection and development of the Arctic, and of keeping in proper balance its current and long-term interests, so as to promote the sustainable development of the Arctic.”

Mere konkret vil Kina i første omgang fokusere på fire områder:

– Skibsruter
– Efterforskning efter og udvinding af olie, gas, mineraler og andre ressourcer.
– Fiskeri og udnyttelse af andre “levende ressourcer”
– Arktisk turisme

Specifikt med hensyn til skibsruter henviser Kina til Centralpassagen, som en skibsrute på tværs af Arktis som supplement til de mere veletablerede Nordvestpassagen og Nordøstpassagen.

“The Arctic shipping routes comprise the Northeast Passage, Northwest Passage, and the Central Passage.”

Zuelongs rute på tværs af Arktis. Kort: CGTN
Zuelongs rute på tværs af Arktis. Kort: CGTN
Den kinesiske isbryder Zuelong brugte i sommeren 2017 næsten 90 dage på at pløje sig vej mere eller mindre “lige over” Arktis ad det, som kineserne altså definerer som Centralpassagen.

Kina samler de tre skibsruter under hatten “Polar Silk Road” og opfordre til styrket samarbejde omkring udviklingen af de tre skibsruter med tilhørende infrastruktur:

“China calls for stronger international cooperation on infrastructure construction and operation of the Arctic routes.”

Med hensyn til efterforskning og udvinding af olie, gas, mineraler og andre ressourcer, så er der næsten ikke grænser for Kinas imødekommenhed og respekt for de arktiske nationer og folk:

“China respects the sovereign rights of Arctic States over oil, gas and mineral resources in the areas subject to their jurisdiction in accordance with international law, and respects the interests and concerns of residents in the region. It requires its enterprises to observe the laws of the relevant States and conduct risk assessments for resource exploration, and encourages them to participate in the exploitation of oil, gas and mineral resources in the Arctic, through cooperation in various forms and on the condition of properly protecting the eco-environment of the Arctic.

Med hensyn til fiskeri og udnyttelse af andre “levende ressourcer” kommer Kina også med åbne arme og gode hensigter:

“China hopes to strengthen cooperation with the Arctic coastal States on the research, conservation, and utilization of fishery resources. China is committed to properly protecting Arctic biodiversity and advocates transparent and reasonable exploration and utilization of Arctic genetic resources, and fair and equitable sharing and use of the benefits generated by the exploitation of such resources.”

Og endelig er den arktiske turisme, hvor Kina også opfordrer til samarbejde:

“China supports and encourages its enterprises to cooperate with Arctic States in developing tourism in the region, and calls for continuous efforts to enhance security, insurance, and rescue systems to ensure the safety of tourists in the Arctic.”

Også her omfavner kineserne de arktiske nationer og de oprindelige folk i Arktis:

“China takes part in the development and utilization of Arctic resources on the condition of respecting the traditions and cultures of the Arctic residents including the indigenous peoples, preserving their unique lifestyles and values, and respecting the efforts made by the Arctic States to empower the local citizens, foster their social and economic progress, and improve education and medical services, so that the Arctic residents, including the indigenous peoples, will truly benefit from the development of Arctic resources.”

Så alt i alt en ganske afdæmpet og imødekommende kinesisk strategi for Arktis. I hvert fald på papiret. Om den faktiske kinesiske ageren i Arktis vil være lige så imødekommende og i samklang med os andre, vil tiden vise.

About Af Andreas Krog 219 Articles
Ansv. redaktør på Arktisk Nyt. post@andreaskrog.dk

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